Source: Maguire S, Hunter B, Hunter L, et al and the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Diagnosing abuse: a systematic review of torn frenum and other intra-oral injuries. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(12):1113–1117; doi:10.1136/adc.2006.113001OpenUrl
Question: Among children presenting with torn frenulum, what is the likelihood that child abuse caused the injury?
Question type: Causation
Study design: Systematic review of prior studies
The authors from Cardiff University, UK systematically reviewed the literature to establish the probability of a torn labial frenulum (or frenum) being caused by abuse and to define the other intra-oral injuries found in physical abuse.
They performed a metaanalysis of studies in which primary data could be extracted for children 0–18 years of age with intra-oral injuries due to physical abuse or torn labial …